FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING. /Height 2471 endobj Distance relays have a settable maximum torque angle (mta), which is the angle of the current compared to the angle of the voltage at which the relay is most sensitive. This can be a plunger being drawn towards the solenoid or an armature being attracted towards the poles of an electromagnet, as shown in the figure. The definition is: Activating the contact unit using electromagnetic attraction, which is produced when electric current exceeding the specified value flows to the electromagnet; the voltage and current (input signal) applied to the coil opens or shuts the contact. Eric Scace, an engineer at Sprint International, invented Frame Relay as a simpler version of the X.25 protocol to use across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces. [/Pattern /DeviceRGB] Electric power is available to the user Introduction to DHCP Relay. NO (Normally Open) and NC (Normally Closed). 2. These are operated to open or close the load contacts in response to one or more electrical quantities like voltage and current. endobj Every part of the power system is protected. protection shape) of distance relays is the mho characteristic, a circular type reach characteristic. x��� ���H��dBP��m%�6 �q. See also: relay. Introduction and Architecture of Numerical Relay April 25, 2018 September 29, 2016 by admin Most of us are aware of Electromagnetic Relays and Static Relays but most us may not be well acquainted with Numerical Relay. These relays can work with both AC and DC supply and attract a metal bar or a piece of metal when power is supplied to the coil. TYPES OF RELAY INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTIVE RELAYING WHAT IS PROTECTIVE RELAYING? /Subtype /Image /Length 13 0 R 7 0 obj 1 0 obj 1 0 obj Actually, a relay is nothing but a combination of one or more open or closed contacts. They are used in various circuits and many of us have problem of how to use a relay. A Solid State Relay (SSR) is a re lay that does not have a moving contact. October 2, 2014 By Anjali Sethiya . /Type /XObject /Type /ExtGState 6 0 obj SSRs, however, employ semiconductor switching elements, such as thyristors, /Type /XObject v�z4�,W��vWg����Y?�*$�m-� ��R}q3$!8{��6�!��N~�܁�V=���+V�%!�I�m�G�Ƒ�Sۙ�� a��%spM�Ru�b�-����ݠ���?�X1�V%ƕ�?�q�����QGUj�n�`�0}]?o�N��6���Ԣ;N��0�$��U�@�fEPq��{U���PYkӒ.���\L-�&(�.��r�+����*�ٷ�9_�H�Ee�' GA�Y_���M�� % �R�U����z%Z�^�+W����J � �;+Z�G�>�ژ_"�ƅ��vp�;ʹ���3�|m�K~8�gE$��w0U�ޠߒQS�^��������]k,,~OcK�G���K`;O`%�՚�?1g9�T\��O�n�̀���^��#��j]��Y�+�P�Ppt����a)~%�Y-Z�(`��Lp�~�!�nA[�����%P�`�`��$����S���f����H��^V��0�"ܩ��L� Normal operation - It involves requirements for supplying the existing load and a certain amount of anticipated future load. Break-before-make Contacts. D-c offset, effect on induction relays, 32, 39 overreach of distance relays, 82, 350 overreach of overcurrent relays, 308 time constant, 279 D-c relays, single-quantity, 22 directional, 24, 49 Differential relays, 63 see also Percentagedifferential relays Directional-comparison relaying, for bus protection, 277 principle of operation, 106 line differential relay sel-311l sel te7l-p relay control test switch its-2 differential protection and automation system schweitzer va engineering laboratories current & potential test switch 1 vc ia. Part 1 Introduction. View INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION & RELAYS PPT.pdf from EEE 56 at JNTU College of Engineering. Relay technology. Relay is an switch, which opens and closes the circuit electronically. Relay accomplishes this with static queries and ahead-of-time code generation. endobj This p roduces a retarding effect on motion of the rotor in either di rection. Introduction to protective relaying 1.1 What is relaying? 18 FUNDAMENTAL RELAY-OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Time delay is obtained in induction-type relays by a "drag magnet," which is a permanent magnet arranged so that the relay rotor cuts the flux between the poles of the magnet, as shown in Fig. Biased relay. - A relay so designed that a bar actuates several contacts simultaneously. Relay is a very important device now days. /Length 9 0 R With the help of this article I have tried to explain two things. 8 0 obj Protective Relays Introduction Protective Relaying is one of the several features of the power system design. Working of relay. endobj Reed relays contain a reed switch, a coil for creating a magnetic field, an optional diode for handling back EMF from the coil, a package and a method of connecting to the reed switch and the coil to outside of the package. stream RELAYING PRINCIPLES. <>stream The relay logic control works efficiently to perform basic ON/OFF operations by opening or closing the relay contacts but it involves a humongous wiring. /Creator (��) The relay is a well known and widely used component Applications range from classic panel built control systems to modem interfaces between control microprocessors and their power circuits or any application where reliable galvanic separation is … ]47���f|�1��`�����Lf6K���~͟��Y��0���Ho�G}�ׯ?�}|���!׻�=��}����Qw��[[S��G�%7\��{�V׳��d{�ܰb+3N��d�w����^V���h�iZzJC�X�l���(��N �r`q��'X�]�#�˹��y�ʽ_��p_�*���L���,&��B��y‹,�����2���(/�'��O�"���C��X֨�W�eu��8S��ߞEy�hn_(_�!.q) ��"+�Zv�GLO���;�SeM\x>27PKY��HL�����QI.�nś��nW�6���0�N�^��f��_��p���+���;Mڪ�v%��O$z!��bF��fj'd�>l�0�Qtv����*J�! This is a picture of frame relay and it works a bit different. %PDF-1.4 >> /CA 1.0 /Height 2471 /Subtype /Image endobj It uses electromagnetism from small voltage to provide higher voltages. endobj %���� Relays are used in a wide variety of applications like electric power systems, home appliances, automobiles, industrial equipments, digital computers, etc. Relay agent forwarding is distinct from the normal forwarding of an IP router where … Relays allow a small current PROTECTIVE RELAYING. INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTIVE RELAYING. Abnormal Operation - Electrical equipment … The relay on the right (just above the “Reclose Cutout” switch) is a reclosing relay, designed to automatically trip the circuit breaker in the event of an instantaneous overcurrent event (e.g. /Width 1971 /Width 1971 /ca 1.0 54 �;�%�����������Yg¸�����������&�����������Yj¸�����������6_�|�3Z��\53333333333j��K�7���a|o����G�'����/ �dr���ߎ��������OW������ �v~~����G+\J?zto2��&. the relay to switch on or off automatically. The idea behind frame relay is that you have a single infrastructure from the service provider and multiple customers are connected to it, effectively sharing everything. stream x��[I�+�����:��ƪ���^d��!��]���{���H:�J���p�mWi8��Α�y����v1���_'���9�������?\~�/˿�����z�˫iI������?��.����f��:�X?�i? 1. a tree branch short-circuiting a power line) and then automatically re-close the breaker to test whether or not the fault has cleared. �l (P6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� 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��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l HP6 $( � ��[email protected]�� A� ��l H�� ����.��endstream Relay logic basically consists of relays wired up in a particular fashion to perform the desired switching operations. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB x���_d�#��P�(ъ�Z�WL!��P�~���T���!��ވO�� �^�Kendstream Electric energy is one of the fundamental resources of modern industrial society. /SMask 12 0 R control test switch 8781 34.5 w bus differential relay sel-587z sel relay control test sv.qrch 2ts12 sÉl-587z high-impedance differential relay schweitzer engineering laboratories relay control test switch 2ts13 . /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB An introduction to Reed Relay basics (Part 1): Reed Relay Basics. 12 0 obj /BitsPerComponent 8 endobj Introduction of static relays began in the early 1960’s. B3�y&3�?澮�~�������g�?23333333333+�pkmk��;KW����������� (IA/ICTL/IAC) [60] field relay (power system device function numbers) A relay that functions on a given or abnormally low value or failure of machine field current, or on an excessive value relays. 2 0 obj NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. >> NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on. /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream /CreationDate (D:20140305093158Z) 'OF�c��a� �Og�x02|�9�5C�0�*�CqtjTU{���b�������*2 �p�R�Dv�k%6V�[��F:�i$��*���nɈI�6x��0:�6. /BitsPerComponent 8 When input voltage is applied across its coil, NC changes to NO and NO changes to NC. Simply put, stream In the drawing on the right, the mta is approximately 75 degrees. /SM 0.02 Introduction to Relays. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION SYSTEM SARIATI Page 9 The relay's switch connections are usually labelled COM, NC and NO: COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch. Some are called VOX (voice- operated) relays because they actuate when we speak into the microphone. We know that most of the high end industrial application devices have relays for their effective working. /Type /XObject << A relay comprises of an electromagnet and a contact unit. Based on operation mechanism protection relay can be categorized as electromagnetic relay, static relay and mechanical relay. The TR (transmit-receive) relays in our ham radio transceivers are examples of devices ROTARY SWITCHES TOGGLE SWITCHES SLIDE that are controlled by the circuit within the transceiver. UNIT I - INTRODUCTION OF RELAYS. /Filter /FlateDecode A Relay comprises of an electromagnet and a contact unit. x�k�� �[email protected]��q��4� ����endstream [�212��~��Y >$�8tz;QtL�wX����‚}TQ��8�.��J�R�=����r�^,~�I�ֱ�옣����x��(6k�����/�͐�l�Q����Òj`Nd��^��4�6�J1���С��:S�b{�.�6ć���,h+�����+k�6ɴA�,��z��M��R>�.V���?HU�C���A�U���sC'�[email protected]��D`G�(dX�6�S�0��_9�t��3MOs����ڪ�\�녣e Relay is a JavaScript framework for building data-driven React applications powered by GraphQL, designed from the ground up to be easy to use, extensible and, most of all, performant. << 4 0 obj 3 0 obj 3 Frame Relay 3.0.1 Introduction Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and Data Link layers of the OSI reference model. /SMask /None>> In terms of operation, SSRs are not very different fr om mechanical relays that have moving contacts. - A relay in which the characteristics are modified by the introduction of some quantity other than the actuating quantity, and which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity. << P. 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